Tax Implications for Cryptocurrency Traders: A Broad Overview of the Tax Implications of Buying, Selling, and Trading Cryptocurrencies

Sep 18, 2023


6 min read


  • Description

  • Cryptocurrency Taxation Around the World

  • Income Tax

  • Capital Gains Tax

  • Mixed Tax Approach

  • Deductions and Losses

  • Seeking Professional Advice

  • Conclusion


This article provides a comprehensive overview of the tax implications that cryptocurrency traders need to consider when buying, selling, and trading cryptocurrencies. Gain insights into how different countries approach cryptocurrency taxation, reporting requirements, capital gains, and the importance of keeping accurate records for tax purposes.

As cryptocurrencies gain popularity and adoption, it is essential for cryptocurrency traders to understand the tax implications of their trading activities. Cryptocurrency taxation varies across jurisdictions, and failure to comply with tax obligations can result in penalties or legal consequences. This article aims to provide traders with a broad overview of the tax considerations they need to be aware of when engaging in cryptocurrency trading activities.

Cryptocurrency Taxation Around the World

Cryptocurrency taxation varies significantly from country to country. Some countries treat cryptocurrencies as commodities, subjecting them to capital gains tax, while others classify them as assets or currencies, resulting in different tax treatments. Traders must familiarize themselves with the tax laws and regulations specific to their country of residence or operation.

Bitcoin's original concept aimed for a currency free from the grip of centralized regulations. However, contemporary crypto holders face diverse tax constraints dictated by local regulatory bodies. In recent months, numerous tax agencies, including the US IRS, have been formulating guidance for overseeing their crypto sectors. Japan's tax authorities scrutinize exchange data to thwart evaders, while Australia's ATO investigates large-scale digital currency tax avoidance. These developments highlight global tax departments' growing concerns about crypto's potential to disrupt traditional financial systems. Here are various crypto-centered economic models adopted by countries worldwide.

Income Tax

A majority of the early adopters of cryptocurrency regulations view virtual currencies as a source of personal or corporate income, subjecting them to taxation similar to earnings from employment, production, and commerce. In most cases, earnings from mining or trading cryptocurrencies are categorized as "other activity" income. For a cryptocurrency transaction to be considered income, it must be received as a form of payment with the intention of generating a profit.

This income tax approach is prevalent in many EU states, as well as in certain countries in Latin America and Asia. The following table provides an overview of income tax rates in prominent cryptocurrency hubs. While the specific usage of cryptocurrencies can influence the type and amount of tax, this table serves as a reference until dedicated tax regulations are established.

From this comprehensive overview, several jurisdictions emerge as attractive for crypto activities due to their favorable tax structures. These include various countries, such as, Romania, and Lithuania, all of which offer straightforward and favorable flat income tax rates for both individuals and organizations. These jurisdictions avoid complexities associated with progressive tax rates, wealth-related taxation, and international earnings, making them particularly appealing for crypto investors and traders.

Capital Gains Tax

The second most widely adopted approach for taxing crypto earnings is treating them as capital gains. This approach is based on the notion that cryptocurrencies are typically acquired for holding or trading, akin to stocks, bonds, real estate, and other forms of personal property. Consequently, their value can appreciate or depreciate over time. Taxation is triggered only when cryptocurrencies are sold at a higher price than their initial purchase cost, leading to taxable capital gains.

Generally, property and capital gains enjoy more favorable tax treatment than income, sometimes even qualifying for tax exemption under specific laws.

The following list encompasses countries that employ the capital gains tax approach in relation to cryptocurrencies.

A quick glance at the table above highlights another Eastern European standout for its straightforward and appealing crypto tax regulation. That country is Bulgaria. Since 2014, Bulgaria's official stance has equated selling cryptocurrencies to selling any other financial assets. This clarity results in a simple flat rate of 10% taxation. There are no progressive tax scales or additional charges.

Mixed Tax Approach

Not all countries align with the aforementioned classifications, often due to distinct cryptocurrency definitions or mixed approaches. Here are five noteworthy examples in this category:

Singapore: Profits from trading digital currencies are taxable, yet long-term investment gains remain tax-exempt. Capital gains from trading are tax-free, whereas non-property type capital gains enjoy exemption.

UK: Cryptocurrencies are assessed from both income and capital gains perspectives. Employees paid in virtual currency are subject to income tax and associated social security. For trading, they are treated as capital gains.

Austria: Cryptocurrencies fall under the "other business assets" category, subject to income tax (up to 55% depending on income). Crypto trading companies face a 25% corporate income tax. If profit distribution occurs, the total tax rate (including capital gains) is approximately 46%.

Greece: Although Greece is in the process of adopting cryptocurrencies, they can be taxed as capital gains or income. Business activity or capital gains from mining or trading incur a 29% flat rate tax for companies. For individuals, capital gains face a 15% tax, while personal income is taxed at rates ranging from 22% to 45%.

Deductions and Losses

Cryptocurrency traders may also be eligible for deductions and offsetting losses against their taxable income. Expenses incurred for trading activities, such as transaction fees, trading platform subscriptions, and professional services fees, may be deductible in some jurisdictions. Additionally, losses incurred from cryptocurrency trading can be offset against other capital gains or carried forward to future tax years, subject to specific rules and limitations. Traders can leverage trusted platforms like Inqud, which provide essential services such as cryptocurrency on/off-ramp, crypto widgets, exchange services, API integration, and secure wallets. These services not only facilitate their trading activities but also assist in maintaining accurate records for tax reporting purposes. It is important for traders to consult with tax professionals or accountants with expertise in cryptocurrency taxation and utilize platforms like Inqud to effectively manage their tax obligations while maximizing their trading potential.

Seeking Professional Advice

Given the complexity and evolving nature of cryptocurrency taxation, seeking professional advice from a tax consultant or accountant with expertise in cryptocurrency taxation is highly recommended. These professionals can provide personalized guidance based on your specific circumstances, ensure accurate tax reporting, and help optimize your tax position while complying with applicable laws and regulations.


Understanding the tax implications of cryptocurrency trading is essential for traders to remain compliant with tax obligations and avoid potential penalties. Traders should educate themselves on the tax laws and regulations specific to their jurisdiction, maintain accurate records of their cryptocurrency transactions, and consider seeking professional advice to navigate the complexities of cryptocurrency taxation. By staying informed and fulfilling their tax responsibilities, cryptocurrency traders can focus on their trading activities with peace of mind.




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Oliver Bennet

Cryptocurrency Payment Strategist

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